تاثیر متغیرهای اقتصاد کلان بر کارآفرینی: رویکرد گشتاورهای تعمیم‌یافته

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم اداری و اقتصادی، داشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبدکاووس، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم اداری و اقتصادی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبدکاووس، ایران

چکیده

کارآفرینی یکی از عوامل اساسی در روند رشد اقتصادی کشورهاست و برای ثبات رشد اقتصادی در دنیای پویای امروز بسیار ضروری است. بنابراین توسعه فعالیت­های کارآفرینی برای کشورهای در حال توسعه و توسعه­یافته یکی از ضروریات است. با این حال، الگوهای فعالیت کارآفرینی به طور ناهموار توزیع شده است. در حالی که برخی مناطق شاهد رشد خارق­العاده­ای در سطح فعالیت کارآفرینی بوده­اند، مناطق دیگر کاهش فعالیت کارآفرینی مولد را نشان داده اند. در این راستا، هدف اصلی مقاله حاضر، بررسی اثرات کوتاه­مدت و بلندمدت متغیرهای اقتصاد کلان (نرخ مالیات، نرخ بیکاری، نرخ تورم، سرمایه­گذاری خارجی، دسترسی به تامین مالی، هزینه راه­اندازی کسب­وکار) بر کارآفرینی در گروهـی از کشورهای کارایی­محور (30کشور از جمله ایـران) و نـوآوری­محـور (28کشـور) بـا اسـتفاده از تکنیک داده­های پانلی و به روش گشتاورهای تعمیم­یافته (GMM) طی دوره زمـانی 2018-2010 است. یافته­های پژوهش حاکی از تاثیر منفی نرخ مالیات، سرمایه­گذاری خارجی، نرخ تورم و هزینه­های ایجاد کسب­وکار و تاثیر مثبت نرخ بیکاری و دسترسی به منابع مالی بر فعالیت کارآفرینانه در کشورهای کارایی­محور در کوتاه­مدت و بلندمدت بوده است. همچنین، یافته­ها گویای تاثیر منفی نرخ مالیات، نرخ بیکاری و هزینه­های ایجاد کسب­وکار؛ و تاثیر مثبت نرخ تورم و دسترسی به منابع مالی و عدم تاثیر سرمایه­گذاری خارجی در کشورهای نوآوری­محور در کوتاه­مدت و بلندمدت بوده است. علاوه­براین، با توجه به وضعیت ثبات اقتصاد کلان کشورهای منتخب، تأثیر این عوامل در کشورهای کارایی­محور نسبت به کشورهای نوآوری­محور شدیدتر بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on Entrepreneurship: Generalized Method of Moments (GMM)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Mohammadi Khyareh 1
  • Nasrin Rostami 2
1 Assistant professor, Department of Administrative and Economic Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran
2 MA student, Department of Administrative and Economic Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran
چکیده [English]

Entrepreneurship is one of the key factors in the process of economic growth of countries and is essential for the stability of economic growth in today's dynamic world. Therefore, the development of entrepreneurial activities is a necessity for developing and developed countries. However, patterns of entrepreneurial activity are unevenly distributed. While some regions have seen extraordinary growth in entrepreneurial activity, others have shown a decline in productive entrepreneurial activity. In this regard, the main purpose of this article is to study the short- and long-term effects of macroeconomic variables (tax rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, foreign investment, access to funds, start-up costs) on entrepreneurship in a group of efficiency-driven countries (30 countries including Iran) and innovation-driven countries (28 countries) using panel data technic and generalized method of moments (GMM) during 2018-2010. The results show the negative effects of tax rates, foreign investment, inflation, and business start-up costs, as well as the positive effects of unemployment and access to financing on entrepreneurial activities in efficiency-driven countries in the short- and long-term. The results also show the negative effects of tax rates, unemployment rates, and business start-up costs, and positive effects of inflation and access to financing, and the lack of foreign investment in innovative countries in the short- and long-term. In addition, due to the macroeconomic stability of selected countries, the impact of these factors is more pronounced in efficiency-oriented countries than in innovation-oriented countries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship
  • efficiency- and innovation-driven Countries
  • Economic development
  • GMM
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