تاثیر سرمایه اجتماعی بر رابطه سرمایه انسانی و رشد اقتصادی

نوع مقاله : علمی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد آموزش، دانشگاه آیت الله بروجردی، بروجرد، ایران

2 استادیار اقتصاد، دانشگاه آیت الله بروجردی، بروجرد، ایران

چکیده

سرمایه انسانی از منظر نظریه­های اخیر رشد اقتصادی یکی از ملزومات اساسی رشد اقتصادی محسوب می­شود، اما بسیاری از کشورهای در حال توسعه علی رغم سرمایه­گذاری­های زیاد در گسترش نظام آموزشی و تقویت سرمایه انسانی، توفیقات چندانی در دستیابی به رشد اقتصادی پایدار و در نهایت توسعه اقتصادی نداشته­اند. هدف این مقاله پاسخگویی به این موضوع است که سرمایه انسانی تحت چه شرایطی می­تواند یک نیروی مولد برای رشد اقتصادی پایدار و در نهایت توسعه اقتصادی باشد. بدین منظور فرضیه اثرگذاری سطح سرمایه اجتماعی بر اثربخشی رابطه سرمایه انسانی و رشد اقتصادی مورد آزمون قرار گرفته است. نمونه آماری شامل 20 کشور توسعه یافته و در حال­توسعه شامل ایران با استفاده از داده‌های بانک جهانی و موسسه لگاتوم، طی سال­های 2009 تا 2018 در نظر گرفته شده است. در این پژوهش از مدل پانل پویای آستانه­ای و روش گشتاور­های تعمیم‌یافته (GMM) استفاده شده است. نتایج برآورد مدل نشان داده است که اثر­گذاری سرمایه انسانی بر رشد اقتصادی بستگی به سطح سرمایه اجتماعی دارد. به عبارت دیگر در شرایطی که سطح سرمایه اجتماعی پایین‌تر از آستانه 8/50 از شاخص سرمایه اجتماعی باشد، سرمایه انسانی توان اثرگذاری مثبت بر رشد اقتصادی ندارد بلکه به دلیل مسائلی چون بیکاری فارغ التحصیلان و پدیده فرار مغزها تاثیری منفی نیز بر رشد اقتصادی برجای می‌گذارد. اما در صورتی‏که سطح سرمایه اجتماعی بالا باشد و از آستانه 8/50 بالاتر رود، اثرگذاری سرمایه انسانی بر رشد مثبت می­شود و در چنین جامعه‌ای سرمایه اجتماعی به عنوان بستری برای شکوفایی سرمایه انسانی عمل می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Social Capital on the Relationship between Human Capital and Economic Growth

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Moftakhari 1
  • Younes Nademi 2
  • Ali Kavand 2
1 Master of Arts, Department of Economics, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University, Boroujerd, Iran,
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University, Boroujerd,
چکیده [English]

.
Human capital is one of the basic requirements of economic growth from the perspective of recent theories of economic growth. However, many developing countries have not been successful in achieving sustainable economic growth and ultimately economic development despite their large investments on expanding the education system and strengthening the human capital. The purpose of this article is to answer the following research question: Under what conditions human capital can be a productive force for sustainable economic growth and ultimately economic development? For this purpose, the hypothesis of the effect of social capital level on the relationship between human capital and economic growth has been tested. The sample included 20 developed and currently developing countries, including Iran. The data has been obtained from the World Bank and the Legatum Institute for the years 2009-2018. In this study, the Threshold Dynamic Panel Model (TDPM) and the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) method have been used. The results of model estimation have shown that the impact of human capital on economic growth depends on the level of social capital, i.e., when the level of social capital is below the threshold of 50.8 of the social capital index, the human capital cannot have a positive effect on economic growth. However, issues such as graduate unemployment and brain drain phenomenon also have a negative effect on the economic growth. In contrast, when the level of social capital is high exceeding the threshold of 50.8, the impact of human capital is positive and in such societies, social capital acts as a platform for the flourishing of human capital.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic Growth
  • human capital
  • social capital
  • Threshold dynamic panel
  • Developed and developing countries
Acemoglu, D. (2012). What Does Human Capital Do? A Review of Goldin and Katz''s The Race Between Education and Technology. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(2), 426-63.
Akçomak, I. S., & Ter Weel, B. (2009). Social Capital, Innovation and Growth: Evidence from Europe. European Economic Review, 53(5), 544-567.
Ali, M., Egbetokun, A., & Memon, M. H. (2018). Human Capital, Social Capabilities and Economic Growth. Economies, 6(1), 1-18.
Alwani, S. M. & Seyed Taghavi, M. A. (2002). Social Capital: Concepts and Theories, Journal of Improvement and Transformation Management Studies, 9 (33, 34), 9 – 26. (In Persian).
Autiero, G. C., & Paulo, V. P. (2016). Religion, Human Capital and Growth.  International Journal of Social Economics, 43(1), 39 – 50.
Bakhtiari, S. (2014). Investigating The Impact of Social Capital on The Development of Human Capital of Parsian Bank, Tehran Branches. Master Thesis. Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch. (In Persian).
Becker, G. S. (1962). Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 70(5, Part 2), 9-49.
Elmi, Z. M. & Jamshidnezhad, A. (2007). The Effect of Education on Economic Growth of Iran during The Years 1971-2003, Journal of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (Macroeconomic Research Letter). 7(26). 135-154. (In Persian). 
Francois, P. (2002). Social Capital and Economic Development. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203166611.
Hendricks, L. (2002). How Important Is Human Capital for Development? Evidence from Immigrant Earnings. American Economic Review, 92(1), 198-219.
Kamali Dehkordi, P., Nazari Zaniani, A., Makiyan, S., Dehghani, F. (2019). The Effect of Different Kinds of Capital on Economic Growth of Selected Provinces of Iran. Quarterly Journal of the Macro and Strategic Policies, 7(25), 66-85. (In Persian).
Kazmi, S. M., Kazim, A., Ghamze, A. (2017). Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep02847.
Khan, R., & Chaudhry, I. S. (2019). Impact of Human Capital on Employment and Economic Growth in Developing Countries. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 5(3), 487-496.
Khodaparast Mashhadi, M., Fallahi, M. A. & Ariana, A. A. (2012). The Effects of Social Capital and Economic Freedom on the Economic Growth of Iran. Journal of Macroeconomics (Journal of Economic Sciences), 9 (17), 98-75. (In Persian).
Knack, S., & Keefer, P. (1997). Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(4), 1251-1288.
Lucas Jr, R. E. (1988). On The Mechanics of Economic Development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22(1), 3-42.
Mahdavi, A. & Pirooz Rahi, Z. (2017). Evaluation of Private Returns Rate of Graduate Studies in Iran Using Multilevel Models. Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 23 (4), 162-145. (In Persian) 
Makian, S. N., Karbalaei, Badi, F. & Bahrami, F. (2021). Social Capital and Economic Growth: A Comparative Study between Countries with High Social Capital and Countries with Low Social Capital. Journal of Strategic and Macro Policies, 9 (33), 209-184. (In Persian). 
Mehregan, N., Gharababa, A. & Lorestani, E. (2012). The Effect of Science and Technology Education on Economic Growth in Iran. Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, 2 (6), 71-93. (In Persian). 
Mobaraki, H., Ahmadi, S. A.A., Daraei, M. R., Abbasi, M. & Hadi. M. (2012). The Association between Social Capital and Learning Organization (A Case Study: Staff of Qom University of Medical Sciences). Health Information Management, 9(5), 679-685. (In Persian).
Mohammadian Mansour, S. Jafari, M. & Mehregan, N. (2018). Measurement and Comparative Study of Social Capital by Provinces of the Country. Social Capital Management Quarterly, 5 (1), 43-66. (In Persian). 
Muringani, J. D., Rune D. F., & Rodriguez-Pose, Andres (2021). Social Capital and Economic Growth in The Regions of Europe. Economy and Space, 53(6), 1412-1434.
Pelinescu, E. (2015). The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth. Procedia Economics and Finance, 22, 184-190.
Prasetyo, P. E., & Kistanti, N. R. (2020). Human Capital, Institutional Economics and Entrepreneurship as A Driver for Quality & Sustainable Economic Growth. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 7(4), 2575-2589.
Renani, M. & Moayedfar, R. (2019). Cycles of Decline of Ethics and Economics of Social Capital and Development in Iran. Tehran, Critique Plan Publishing. (In Persian).
Renani, M. Emadzadeh, M. & Moayedfar, R. (2006). Social Capital and Economic Growth: Presenting a Theoretical Model. Journal of Humanities Research, University of Isfahan, 21 (2), 133-151. (In Persian).
Romer, D. (2018). Advanced Macroeconomics (Mcgraw-hill Economics). McGraw-Hill Education; 5th Edition (February 19, 2018).
Samadi, Ali. H., Marzban, H. & Asadian Fallahieh, K. (2012). Human Capital, Social Capital and Economic Growth, A Case Study of Iranian Economy (1971-2008). Journal of Applied Economic Studies in Iran, 1(2), 145-176. (In Persian).
Schuller, T. (2001). The Complementary Roles of Human and Social Capital. Birkbeck College, University of London.
Sequeira, T. N., & Ferreira-Lopes, A. (2011). An Endogenous Growth Model with Human and Social Capital Interactions. Review of Social Economy, 69(4), 465-493.
Soumyanada, D. (2008). Social Capital in The Creation of Human Capital and Economic Growth: A Productive Consumption Approach. The Journal of Socio- Economics, 37 (5), 2020-2033.
Suri, A. (2014). Social Capital and Growth in Iran. Journal of Economic Research and Policy, 22 (69), 64-49. (In Persian).
Yu, W. (2015). Human Capital, Social Capital and Economic Growth. Athens Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 161-172.