عنوان مقاله [English]
The present research investigates the effects of foreign trade on the labor earnings in Iranian manufacturing industries at the three-digit aggregation level of ISIC classification over the period 2009-2013. For this purpose, relative total earnings, wages, and fringe benefits used as dependent variables and inter industry trade, intra-industry trade (IIT) in its' details (vertical and horizontal), human capital, capital intensity, total factor productivity and dependent variable with one lag used as explanatory variables in the models. By using of GMM two-step method, the results indicate that there is a positive path-dependency between the current and lagged values of dependent variables. The results also show positive and significant effects of inter industry trade on the labor earnings, still, these effects are more effective on fringe benefits than wages. On the other hand, intra-industry trades have a depressing effect on the labor earnings. Finally, increasing in the human capital, capital intensity, and total factor productivity is associated with more labor earnings in Iranian manufacturing industries.
Acemoglu, D. (2003). Patterns of Skill Premia, Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 70: 199-230.
Aisbett, E., Harrison, A., & Zwane, A. (2005). Globalization and Poverty: What is the Evidence? Globalization: Prospects and Problems Conference in Honor of Jagdish Bhagwati's 70th Birthday.
Amiti, M., & Davis, D.R. (2012). Trade, Firms, and Wages: Theory and Evidence, Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 79: 01-36.
Anderson, T.M., & Sorensen, A. (2011). Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Inequality, Review of International Economics, Vol. 19: 595-608.
Bastos, P., & Straume, O.R. (2012). Globalization, Product Differentiation, and Wage Inequality, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 45: 857-878.
Berman, E., Bound, J., & Griliches, Z. (1994). Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing: Evidence from Annual Survey of Manufactures, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 109: 367-397.
Berman, E., & Machin, S. (2000). Skilled-Biased Technology Transfer Around the World, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol. 16: 12-22.
Bernard, A.B., Jensen, J.B., Redding, S.J., & Schott, P.K. (2007). Firms in International Trade, Journal of Economic Perspective, Vol. 21: 105-130.
Bijleveld, A. (2011). The Effect of International Trade on Wages of Skilled and Unskilled Workers: Evidence from Brazil, Erasmus School of Economics, Department of Economics.
Caju, P.D., Rycx, F., & Tojerow, I. (2012). Wage Structure Effects of International Trade in a Small Open Economy: The Case of Belgium, Review of World Economics, Vol. 148: 297-331.
Carneiro, F., & Arbache, J. (2003). The Impact of Trade on the Brazilian Labor Market: A CGE Model Approach, World Development, Vol. 31: 1581-1595.
Dai, M., & Xu, J. (2017). The Skill Structure of Export Wage Premium: Evidence from Chinese Matched Employer-Employee Data, The World Economy, Vol. 40: 883-905.
Dahai, F., & Yanrui, W. (2013). Export Wage Premium in China’s Manufacturing Sector: A Firm Level Analysis, China Economic Review, Vol. 26: 182-196.
Davis, D., & Harrigan, J. (2011). Good Jobs, Bad Jobs, and Trade Liberalization, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 84: 26-36.
De Loecker, J. (2007). Do Exports Generate Higher Productivity? Evidence from Slovenia, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 73: 69-98.
Egger, H., & Kreickemeier, U. (2009). Firm Heterogeneity and the Labor Market Effects of Trade Liberalization, International Economic Review, Vol. 50: 187-216.
Ekholm, K., & Midelfart, K.H. (2005). Relative Wages and Trade-Induced Changes in Technology, European Economic Review, Vol. 49: 1637-1663.
Everson, R.E., & Westphal, L. (1995). Technological Change and Technology Strategy, InJ. Behrman and T.N. Srinivasan (Eds.), Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. 3A. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 2209-99
Ghosh, S., & Yamarik, S. (2007). International Trade, Technology, and the Wage Gap: Evidence from Granger-Causality Tests, Review of International Economics, Vol. 15: 321-346.
Greenaway, D., & Kneller, D. (2007). Firm Heterogeneity, Exporting and Foreign Direct Investment: A Survey, Economic Journal, Vol. 117: 134-161.
Helpman, E., & Itskhoki, O. (2010). Labor Market Rigidities, Trade and Unemployment, Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 77: 1100-1137.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (2013). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk, In Handbook of the Fundamentals of Financial Decision Making: Part I (pp. 99-127): World Scientific.
Keshavarz Hadad, Gh.R., & Najati Moharrami, Z. (2007). The Impact of Trade Liberalization on the Wage Inequality (The Case Study of Iran 1380-1382),Tahghighat-E-Eghtesadi, Vol. 77:189-219.
Lee, S. (2017). International Trade and Within-Sector Wage Inequality: The Case of South Korea, Journal of Asian Economics, Vol. 48: 38-47.
Melitz, M. (2003). The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity, Econometrica, Vol. 71: 1695-1725.
Pavcnik, N., Blom, A., Goldberg, P., & Schady, N. (2004). Trade Liberalization and Industry Wage Structure: Evidence from Brazil, World bank.
Ravallion, M. (2004). Looking Beyond Averages in the Trade and Poverty Debate, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 3461.
Schank, T., Schnabel, C., and Wagner, J. (2010). Higher Wages in Exporting Firms: Self-Selection, Export Effect, or Both? First Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data, Review of World Economics, Vol. 146: 303-22.
Stojanovska, N., & Cuyvers, L. (2010). The Interplay Between International Trade and Technological Change and the Wage Inequality in the OECD Countries, FIW Working Paper, 43.
Srivastava, A., & Mathur, S.K. (2013). Relative Prices, Trade, Technology and Wage Inequality: Evidence from India, Foreign Trade Review, Vol. 48: 359-381.
Were, M., & Kayizzi-Mugerwa, S. (2009). Do Exporting Firms Pay Higher Wages? Evidence from Kenya’s Manufacturing Sector, African Development Review, Vol. 21: 435-453.
Wood, A. (1997). Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenges to East Asian Conventional Wisdom, World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 11: 33-57.
Yasar, M., & Paul, C.J.M. (2008). Capital-Skill Complementarity, Productivity and Wages: Evidence from Plant-Level Data for a Developing Country, Labour Economics, Vol. 15: 01-17.
Zahedi Vafa, M., & Firoozan Sarnaghi, T. (2009). The Impact of International Trade on Employment and Labor Wage Rate in Iran’s Industrial Sector, Economic Research Review, Vol. 3: 69-94.
Zhu, S.C., & Trefler, D. (2005). Trade and Inequality in Developing Countries: A General Equilibrium Analysis, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 65: 21-48.