سهم درآمدی و کشش‌های تقاضای نیروی کار صنایع ایران با تأکید بر رشد اقتصادی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه اقتصاد، ، دانشکده علوم اقتصادی و اداری، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 استاد گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده علوم اقتصادی و اداری، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسرف ایران

3 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22080/iejm.2019.14440.1607

چکیده

در این پژوهش، ابتدا به بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر سهم درآمدی نیروی کار و در گام بعدی، محاسبه‌ی کشش‌های قیمتی، متقاطع و تولیدی نیروی کار پرداخته شده ‌است. ازآنجاکه متغیر وابسته، کسری است، به‌منظور برآورد مدل، از روش پروبیت تابلویی کسری بازه‌ی صفر و یک، برای سی استان کشور و در بازه‌ی زمانی 1383 تا 1393 استفاده شد. یافته‌های حاصل از برآورد مرحله‌ی اول نشان داد که افزایش دستمزد و نسبت کارگران ماهر به غیرماهر منجر به بیشتر شدن سهم درآمدی نیروی کار می‌شود. کاهش سهم نیروی کار با افزایش قیمت سرمایه، ارزش مواد خام و اولیه و حق بیمه پرداختی از دیگر یافته‌ی این پژوهش است. در گام دوم، رابطه‌ی دستمزد با تقاضای کار منفی و منطبق با نظریه تقاضای کار به دست آمد. کشش اشتغال-رشد برای کارگاه‌های صنعتی با بیش از 100 نفر کارکن، مثبت و 0.52 حاصل شد. کشش متقاطع منفی بین نیروی کار و قیمت سرمایه دلالت بر رابطه‌ی مکملی بین این دو متغیر دارد. با استناد بر یافته‌های تحقیق و لحاظ کمبود تقاضا در بازار کار ایران پیشنهاد می‌شود، سیاست‌گذار اقتصادی تسهیلات مناسبی برای افزایش رشد صنعتی، رفع موانع تولیدی، کاهش ریسک سرمایه‌گذاری و ارتقا‌ی مهارت نیروی انسانی هم‌راستا با نیاز بخش‌های صنعتی فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Income Share and Labor Demand Elasticities of Iran’s Industry with Emphasize on Economic Growth

نویسندگان [English]

  • kheizaran Roostaei Shalmani 1
  • Zahra (Mila) Elmi 2
  • Hasan Taee 3
1 PHD student at Economics department, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 Professor of Economics , Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
3 Associate professor at Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This paper firstly investigated the affecting factors on labor income share, and in the second phase, by using the previous estimation, own-wage, cross, and output elasticity of the labor will be calculated. With regards to the fact that the dependent variable was limited to the interval 0 and 1, a Fractional Panel Probit technique has been used for the period of time from 2004 to 2014 and the provincial level for firms with having more than 100 employees. The results of the first phase represent, labor income share is increased by increasing wages and ratio of skilled to unskilled employees. If the value of the raw, premium paid and capital price increase, the dependent variable will rise. In the second part, according to the theoretical, the relationship between labor and wage was obtained negative. There is a positive sign for output-employment elasticity that was obtained 0.52. The results show cross elasticity of capital price and labor demand is negative and reveals a complementary effect. Based on research results and since Iran’s labor market is suffering from labor demand shortage and high unemployment, it is suggested that the economic policymaker should apply appropriate facility to increase industrial growth, eliminate production barriers, reduce the risk of investment and improve human resources skills in accordance with the requirement of industrial sectors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Labor income share
  • Labor demand elasticities
  • Economic growth of the industrial sector
  • Fractional Panel Probit
  • Iran

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