فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات و رقابت پذیری ملی: یک تحلیل بین کشوری

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیارگروه اقتصاد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی فیروزکوه، فیروزکوه، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مدیریت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد فیروزکوه، فیروزکوه، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد دانشگاه آزاداسلامی فیروزکوه، ایران

10.22080/iejm.2019.15247.1637

چکیده

در این مقاله، تأثیر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر رقابت‌پذیری ملی کشورهای منتخب که از نظر سطح توسعه در پنج گروه کشورهای «عامل‌محور»، «کارایی‌محور»، «نوآورمحور» و اقتصادهای «در حال گذار» تقسیم ‌شدند، با رهیافت داده‌های پانل در دوره 2017-2007 ارزیابی گردید. مدل اقتصادسنجی برای کل 79 کشور حاضر در نمونه تحقیق برآورد شد. نتایج نشان می‌دهند در هر پنج گروه و کل کشورها، شاخص‌های ضریب نفوذ اینترنت و تلفن همراه به عنوان جایگزین‌های فاوا اثر مثبت و معنادار بر سطح رقابت‌پذیری کل کشورها دارد. ضریب برآوردی شاخص‌های ضریب نفوذ اینترنت و تلفن همراه به ترتیب برابر 01/0 و 001/0 می‌باشد. بجز متغیر سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی که اثر پایدار بر رقابت‌پذیری ندارد، متغیرهای سرمایه انسانی، بازبودن اقتصاد و حکمرانی خوب اثرات مثبت و معنادار بر رقابت‌پذیری ملی کشورها دارند. چنین استنباط می‌شود با افزایش سطح توسعه‌یافتگی، اثرگذاری فاوا بر رقابت‌پذیری نیز افزایش می‌یابد؛ بدین معنا که با ارتقای آمادگی فنی، پذیرش فاوا اثر بیش‌تری بر بهره‌وری و رقابت‌پذیری داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Information and Communication Technology and National Competitiveness: A Cross-country Analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Fathabadi 1
  • Niloufar Mmankhan 2
  • mahmod mahmodzade 3
1 Assistant professor, Department of Economics, Islamic Azad University, Firuzkuh Branch, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Firuzkuh Branch, Iran
3 Associate professor, Department of Economics, Islamic Azad University, Firuzkuh Branch, Iran
چکیده [English]

Information and Communication Technology is a main factor that increases competitive capacity of countries and it improves their position in international exchanges. In this paper the effect of Information and Communication Technology ion national competitiveness with using panel data regression during 2008-2016. To estimate the model, countries divided into four groups include “factor-driven countries”, “efficiency-driven countries”, “innovation-driven economies” and “transition” countries as some countries are transitioning from stage one to two, and others are moving from stage two to three. The specified econometric model also estimated for whole sample includes 80 countries. Findings indicate that the Information and Communication Technology improvement has positive and statistically significant effect on the countries' level of competitiveness in four group countries. The elasticity of competitiveness with respect to Information and Communication Technology for factor-driven economies is between 0.02-0.07, in efficiency-driven countries 0.1, in innovation-driven countries between 0.06-0.15. Finally the elasticity of competitiveness in transition countries one to two and two to three is about 0.01 and 0.08 respectively. This elasticity for whole sample is 0.05. The conclusion of this paper is that the developed countries have appropriate technological readiness and adoption of Information and Communication Technology has a high impact on productivity and competitiveness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Information and Communication Technology
  • Competitiveness
  • Productivity
  • panel data
  • Selected Countries
Fartash, K., Salami, R., & Mousavai, D. S. (2011). The role of absorption capacity in improving technology competitiveness: The key to success in government organizations in developing countries (with emphasis on the Iranian economy), Management of Government Organizations Journal, 2, 2(6), 76-106.] In Persian[.

Shahikitash, M., Mahmodpour, K., & Mohseni, H. (2013). Investigating the factors affecting the competitiveness index of countries with emphasis on the Iranian economy, Fiscal and Economic Policies Journal, (3)11, 155-188. ] In Persian[.

Alam, K. (2015). Information and communications technology and Australia’s regional economic competitiveness, report prepared for the western downs regional council. Australian Centre for Sustainable Business and Development, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.

Baltagi, B. (2014). Panel data and difference-in-differences estimation, Encyclopedia of Health Economics, 2, 425-433.

Bubanja, I. (2014). Newspapers in modern commercial practice Belgrade, Serbia: Andrejevic Foundation.

Cantwell, John. (2003). Innovation and Competitiveness. From Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press.

Cuevas-Vargas, H., Estrada, S., & Larios-Gómez, E. (2016). The effects of ICTs as innovation facilitators for a greater business performance. Evidence from Mexico, Procedia Computer Science, 91, 47 – 56.

Du Rausas, M. P., Manyika, J., Hazan, E., Bughin, J., Chui, M., & Said, R. (2011). Internet matters: The Net`s sweeping impact on growth, jobs and prosperity: McKinsey Global Institute.

Engle, R. F., & Granger, C. W. J. (1987). Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing, Econometrica, 55, 251-276.

Enriquez, L., Cuevas-Vargas, H., & Adame, M. (2015). The impact of information and communication technologies on the competitiveness: Evidence of manufacturing SMEs in Aguascalientes, Mexico, International Review of Management and Business Research, (4)3, 758-770.

Evans, P. (1998). Transnational corporations and third world states: From the old internationalization to the new, transnational corporations and the global economy. Macmillan Press, 195–224.

EU-Commission. (2008). Preparing europe’s digital future i2101 mid-term review. Brussel: EU Commission.

Green, W. (2000). Econometric analysis, 4th edition, prentice hall, upper saddle river, New Jersey.

Grossman,G., & Helpman (1991). Innovation and Growth in the world economy, MIT, Cambridge.

Jones, C.I., & Williams, J. (2000). Too much of a good thing? The economics of investment in R&D. Journal of Economic Growth, (5)1, 65–85.

Joseph, K., & Abraham, V. (2008). Information technology and proactivity evidence from India manufacturing sector.

Kao, C.D. (1999). Spurious regression and residual-based tests for cointegration in panel data, Journal of Econometrics, 90, 1–44.

Krugman, P. (1991a). Increasing returns and economic geography. Journal of Political Economy, (99)3, 483-499.

Krugman, P. (1994). Competitiveness: A dangerous obsession. Foreign Affairs, (73)2, 28-44.

Lukas, M., & Nevima, J. (2011). Application of econometric panel data model for regional competitiveness evaluation of selected EU 15 countries, Journal of competitiveness, 4, 23-38.

Lundvall, B.A. (1988). Innovation as an interactive process: From user–produce interaction to the national system of innovation. Technical Change and Economic Journal, 23, 2.

Lopez M., & Mlina & Claver (2010). The potential of environmental regulation to change managerial perception, environmental management, competitiveness and financial performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 963-974.

Pedersen, K. (2008). Institutional competitiveness: How nations came to compete, Working Paper no.47, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen.

Pedroni, P. (2004). Panel cointegration; Asymptotic and finite sample properties of pooled time series tests with an application to the PPP hypothesis, Econometric Theory, 20, 597–625.

Pilat, D. (2005). The economic impacts of ICT-lessons learned and new challenges. Paper presented at the Eurostat conference Knowledge Economy –Challenges for Measurement, Luxembourg.

Pilinkiene, V. (2016). Trade openness, economic growth and competitiveness. The case of the central and eastern european countries. Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics, (27)2, 185–194.

Porter, M. (1998). Adam Smith address: Location, cluster and the new microeconomics of competition. Business Economics, (33)1, 7-17.

Porter, M. (2003). Global competitiveness Report. WEF: Oxford University Press.

Rinert, E. (1994). Competitiveness and its predecessors. business history conference. Virginia.

Rodrik, D. (2004). Getting institutions right, CESifo DICE Report 2/2004.

Venables, A. (1996). Equilibrium locations of vertically linked industries. International Economic Review, 37, 341-359.

World Economic Forum. (2015). The Case for Trade and Competitiveness. Available from internet: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GAC_Competitiveness_2105.pdf.

Zoroja, J. & Pejic Bach, M. (2016). Impact of information and communication technology to the competitiveness of european countries - cluster analysis approach, J. theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. res. (11)1, Talca ene.